The world at the moment is going through serious educational reforms in order to meet the complex needs of people. Ghana is no exception to these reforms; all these reforms are done with the view of making education more functional and relevant to the needs of the immediate community and the world as a whole. It is imperative to point out that the youth need information to help them think through and make informed choices in the present technological and competitive world. Guidance and Counselling therefore plays a major role in helping the youth to be productive in all fields of endeavor.
It is true that a very minor percentage of mankind is capable of handling its problems independently without the cooperation and guidance of others. It has been discovered that majority of people do not have the confidence or insight to unravel their problems to others. Previously in the Traditional Ghanaian society, family heads provided specified guidance and advice whenever any member of the family or the community needed it. Needless to mention, too often informal advice given without a transparent understanding of the matter involved was harmful and misleading to the individual. With the passage of some time, revolutionary and evolutionary changes have taken place.
In these modern times, the guidance movement has gained grounds globally generating a superb amount of enthusiasm and zeal among parents, teachers and social workers who have devoted time to explore its feasibility. All these said people are convinced that the right provision of guidance services should be made for youngsters at different age levels for the harmonious development of their personalities within the larger interest of the society and therefore the individual.
The purpose of writing this book is in two-fold. Firstly, it seeks to provide simple, straightforward and yet comprehensive basic principles of guidance for the benefit of non-specialist readers. The content is richly stuffed with a gamut of ideas which encourages newcomers to the field of guidance and counselling to acquire and develop their skills to become professional counsellors.
Secondly, the book has been prepared with sufficient reference to the Ghanaian educational context to meet the needs of the Diploma in Basic Education (DBS) and Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) students. Also, more advanced students pursuing specialized programmes in guidance and counselling at M.Ed./M/A/MPhil/Ph.D. levels will find this book as a useful introductory material to undertake more detailed work.
The topics treated covers the guidance and counselling syllabus for level 300 pre-service teachers in Ghanaian Colleges of Education. This volume provides students with a basic understanding of teaching Guidance and Counselling in basic schools.
The book is divided into ten chapters. Chapter one deals with the meaning and principles of guidance, and the need for Guidance and Counselling in Basic Schools. Chapter two examines the meaning, nature, purposes, and principles of counselling, as well as the difference between Guidance and counselling among others.
Chapter three considers Appraisal Service under the following: types of techniques used for collecting data for effective appraisal service. The main techniques discussed are test and non-test items. In chapter four, information service is discussed in details. Items considered include: the rational, purposes, types and the role of the counsellor in information service. Chapter five talks about the nature, importance, purposes and the role of counsellors in consultation service.
Chapter six discusses both the placement and orientation services. The discussion starts with the placement service. It includes: the purpose, types, and the need for placement service in schools. It ends with the role of counsellors in placement service. The items considered in the Orientation Service include: the meaning, importance, methods and the role of counsellors in Orientation Service in schools.
The seventh chapter talks about the Follow-Up Service. The nature, purpose, type of methods used for collecting data for Follow-Up Services are also discussed. The role of counsellors and the challenges they face in Follow-Up Service are also considered in the chapter. Chapter eight delves into the Referral and Evaluation Services. First, the chapter discusses the Referral Service, what it entails, its importance and the role of the counsellor in the Referral Service. The chapter ends with Evaluation service. Subheadings considered in the chapter include: the nature, purpose, importance, techniques use in evaluation, as well as its challenges and the role of counsellors in Evaluation Service.
Chapter nine looks at the guidance functionaries in Basic Schools. The team typically may include the headmaster or principal, classroom teachers, parents and other helping professionals such as psychologists, social workers, health workers, among others. Each of these people plays a significant role in the success of the guidance enterprise of which the pupil is central.
Finally, the last chapter which is chapter ten discusses some approaches and theories of Counselling, based on Behavioural, Directive and Clients/Person-centered or Rogerian theories and among others. It is hoped that this book would prove to be a handy and useful material for lecturers/tutors and pre-service teachers in the Universities educating teachers and Colleges of Education in Ghana, as well as other educators and students elsewhere.
Rev. Dr. Bernard Kofi Adinkrahis currently, the acting College Secretary/Registrar and Chaplain of the Kibi Presbyterian College of Education where he is also a Principal Tutor in Guidance and Counselling. He holds a PhD in Guidance and Counselling at the University of Education, Winneba. He also holds three Masters Degrees in Educational Administration,Theology and Missions. He is a professional Counsellor and a member of the Ghana Association of Counsellors. He is an ordained minister of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana (PCG) and has served and still serving on various leadership positions in the Church including being the first National President of the Young Adults’ Fellowship of PCG. He has fourteen (14) publications to his credit and has written extensively on Values Education and Guidance and Counselling. He is married to Audrey and are blessed with four children.
Rev. Charles Fosu-Ayarkwah is the Principal of Kibi Presbyterian College of Education. He is an Ordained Minister of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. He holds M.Phil in Guidance and Counselling, M.Ed. in Education Administration, M.A in Mission and Theology from the Akrofi-Christaller Institute of Theology, Mission and Culture, Akropong-Akuapem. He also holds a Certificate and Diploma in Theology from Trinity Theological Seminary. A professional teacher, he is currently pursuing a PhD in Educational Management. In addition, he has six (6) published articles and four (4) written books. He is a conference speaker with specialization in youth and their ‘’Personal Social issues’’. He is a counsellor with the Grace Evangelistic Team, Akropong-Akuapem. He is married to Naana, they are blessed with three children.
CHAPTER ONE: THE CONCEPT OF GUIDANCE
Meaning of Guidance 1
Nature of Guidance 4
Principles of Guidance 5
The need for Guidance in Basic Schools
(Primary and Junior High) 6
Differences between Guidance and Counselling 7
Types of Guidance Services 8
CHAPTER TWO: THE CONCEPT OF COUNSELLING
Counselling Defined 10
Nature of Counselling 12
Purpose of Counselling 12
Principles of Counselling 13
Characteristics of Counselling 15
Communication in Counselling 16
Stages in Counselling 18
Who is a Counsellor ` 21
The role of the school counsellor 22
The Concept and Practice of Peer Counselling 24
Counselling Skills And Techniques 26
The Counselling Service 30
CHAPTER THREE: THE APPRAISAL SERVICE
Types of Techniques for Data Collection 35
Test Techniques 35
Non-Test Techniques 40
CHAPTER FOUR: THE INFORMATION SERVICE
Rational in Offering the Information Service 51
Purpose of Information 52
Types of Information 53
Role of Counsellors in the Information Service 55
CHAPTER FIVE: THE CONSULTATION SERVICE
Purpose of Consultation 57
Importance of Consultation Service 57
Counsellor’s Role in Consultation Service 58
Problems in Consultation Service 60
CHAPTER SIX: THE PLACEMENT AND ORIENTATION SERVICES
Purpose of Placement Service 61
Types of Placement Service 62
Educational Placement 62
Vocational Placement 62
Social Placement 63
Role of Counsellor’s in the placement Service 63
Importance of Orientation Service 64
Methods Used for Orientation Service 64
Role of the Counsellor’s in the Orientation Service 64
CHAPTER SEVEN: THE INFORMATION SERVICE
Purpose of Follow-Up Service 66
Data Gathering Methods in Follow-up Service 66
Types of Follow-Up Studies 68
Importance of Follow-Up Service 69
The Role of School Counsellor in Follow-Up Service 69
Problems in Follow-Up Service 69
CHAPTER EIGHT: THE REFERRAL AND EVALUATION SERVICES
Importance of Referral Service 70
Counsellor’s Role in Referral Service 71
Evaluation Service 71
Purpose of Evaluation Service 71
Characteristics of Evaluation Service 72
Importance of Evaluation Service 72
Problems Associated with Evaluation Service 74
CHAPTER NINE: GUIDANCE FUNCTIONARIES IN BASIC SCHOOLS
The School 75
The Class Teacher 76
The School Counsellor 78
The Housemaster/Mistress/Form Tutor 79
Director of Guidance 80
The School Nurse 81
The School Librarian 82
The Social Worker 82
The Special Educator 83
Challenges Faced in the Delivery of Guidance &
Counselling in Basic Schools 83
Overcoming Challenges in the Guidance and
Counselling Programme 84
CHAPTER TEN: APPROACHES AND THEORIES
Behavioural Approaches/Theories 87
Directive Approach 92
Client/Person-Centered or Rogerian Counselling Theory 95