Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils: Investigating Home Environment Factors Contributing to Low Academic Performance

Olivia Akrofi

Issue: Vol.1  No.2 June 2020  Article 1 pp. 49-57
DOI :   |   Published online 3rd June 2020.
© 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CCBY license (


Home environment factors affect the mental and psychological capability of the learner to attain academic feats. This study investigated home environment factors contributing to low academic performance in primary school pupils in Ghana with a key focus on the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Primary School in Kumasi. Home environment factors include socio-economic status, parental style and family size. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 120 learners and 60 parents of the institution using questionnaires and interviews respectively. The results revealed that a significant number of pupils described their homes as not conducive for learning and this was largely attributed to the parental socio-economic status. Again, lack of parental involvement negatively influences the academic work of learners. The study concluded that parents should be encouraged to participate in regular Parent Teacher Association (PTA) meetings to learn more about parental styles and strategies to be more involved in their children’s education.

Keywords: Home environment factors, academic achievement, academic performance, socioeconomic status, parental style.

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Olivia Akrofi is a Chief Teacher at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Primary School. She holds a Master of Philosophy (Educational Innovation and Leadership Science) from KNUST, Kumasi –Ghana and a Master of Education (Guidance and Counseling) University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Email:

Akrofi, Olivia. “Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils: Investing Home Environment Factors Contributing to Low Academic Performance.” E-Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences 1, no.2 (2020): 49-57.

© 2020 The Author(s). Published and Maintained by Noyam Publishers. This is an open access article under the CCBY license (