A Systematic Review of Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Strategies to Improve Instruction of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria

Sulaimon Adewale ORCID iD, Bunmi I .Omodan ORCID iD & Omotayo A. Awodiji ORCID iD

Issue: Vol.3  No.11 October 2022 Post COVID-19 Special Issue  Article 2 pp.19-35
DOI: https://doi.org/10.38159/ehass.2022sp3113 |   Published online 27th October 2022.
© 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CCBY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


In Nigeria, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused many economies to crumble and claimed lives, has been a drawback to the teaching and learning of technical and vocational education and training (TVET). This paper examined the strategies scholars have identified in the previous studies to reposition and make effective the instruction of technical and vocational education in Nigeria post-COVID-19. A PRISMA protocol was adopted to document the analysis method and inclusion and exclusion criteria. The authors used relevant electronic databases (Google Scholar and Scopus) to search for qualitative and quantitative journal articles published in English between 2020 and 2022 on TVET in Africa. Studies that focused on primary education level were excluded. A three-step synthesis process was used to map the literature to the study objectives. It was found that teaching and learning in TVET in the post-COVID period can be improved by providing professional training programmes for teachers or instructors on relevant skills in a disruptive situation. This paper will guide the educational stakeholders (government, school administrators, teachers, and non-governmental organisations) on the effective strategies for teaching and learning TVET in Nigeria post-COVID-19.

Keywords: TVET, post-COVID-19, Nigeria, Strategies, Teaching and learning

Adewale, Sulaimon. “Assessment of Public-Private Partnership in Technical Colleges in Nigeria: A Case of Lagos State.” International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 7, no. 2 (December 31, 2021): 36–51. https://doi.org/10.35993/ijitl.v7i2.1948.

———. Policy Change Implementation Strategies and Goal Achievement in Technical Colleges in South-West, Nigeria. . Ilorin: Educational Management, University of Ilorin, 2018. https://doi.org/10.30900/kafkasegt.996019.

Akinyele, Temitayo A., and Fehintola F. Bolarinwa. “Prospects, Issues and Challenges of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) In Revamping Nigeria Depressed Economy.” International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education Research 4, no. 1 (February 28, 2018): 1–18. https://www.eajournals.org/journals/international-journal-vocational-technical-education-research-ijvter/vol-4-issue-1-march-2018/prospects-issues-challenges-technical-vocational-education-training-tvet-revamping-nigeria-depressed-economy/.

Allais, Stephanie, Volker Schoer, Carmel Marock, Victor Kgalema, Nduvho Ramulongo, and Tolika Sibiya. “Rethinking ‘Supply and Demand’ of Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Insights from a Company Survey in Three Manufacturing Sectors in South Africa.” Journal of Education and Work 34, no. 5–6 (August 18, 2021): 649–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2021.1967302.

Anene-Okeakwa, Josephine E., M. O. Chukwurah, and E.E. Ikenga. “Policy Reforms in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): Lessons for the Nigerian Government towards Sustainable Industrial Growth.” Vocational and Technical Education Journal  2, no. 2 (2020): 316–22. https://acjol.org/index.php/votej/article/view/818.

Atukunda, Jackline, and Margaret Malewaneng Maja. “Computer Practice Module Lecturers’ Experiences of Internal Continuous Assessment at Technical Vocational Education and Training Colleges.” International Journal of Educational Methodology 8, no. 1 (2022): 151–62. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.8.1.151.

Ayonmike, Chinyere Shirley, Ven Okeke, and Benjamin Chukwumaijem. “Making Technical and Vocational Education and Training First Career Choice in Africa: What Can Stakeholders Do Differently?” Journal Of The Nigerian Academy Of Education 15, no. 2 (August 1, 2020). https://www.journals.ezenwaohaetorc.org/index.php/JONAED/article/view/1291.

Chinengundu, Tawanda. “Four Strategies for Blended Learning in TVET.” In New Models for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, edited by Moses Makgato and George Afeti, 74–90. IGI Global, 2021. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-2607-1.ch005.

Dasmani, Adam. “Challenges Facing Technical Institute Graduates in Practical Skills Acquisition in the Upper East Region of Ghana.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education 12, no. 2 (2011): 67–77.

Ebohon, Osamudiamen, Anayochukwu Chukwunonso Obienu, Francis Irabor, Frank Iwebuke Amadin, and Ehimwenma Sheena Omoregie. “Evaluating the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown on Education in Nigeria: Insights from Teachers and Students on Virtual/Online Learning.” Bulletin of the National Research Centre 45, no. 1 (December 20, 2021): 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-021-00538-6.

Edeh, Nathaniel Ifeanyi, Ernest O Ugwoke, Friday Ekahe Abanyam, Maureen Anayo Madu, Narborth Odums Augustine, and Matthew Chukwuma Pulife. “Extending the Technology Acceptance Model in the Impact of Vocational Educators’ Gender, Experience and Perception.” Journal of Technical Education and Training 13, no. 3 (May 19, 2021): 93–107. https://doi.org/10.30880/jtet.2021.13.03.009.

Hondonga, Jerald, and Sylvia Manto Ramaligela. “Comparing Financing Models for Vocational Education and Training in Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.” In Socio-Economic Perspectives on Vocational Skill Development: Emerging Research and Opportunities, edited by U. Okolie, 56–79. IGI Global, 2020. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-4145-5.ch003.

Katam, E., and D. Otieno. “A Review of Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutions’ Online Learning as a Response to Corona-Virus Disease 2019 in Kenya.” The Kenya Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training 4 (2021): 96–105.

Kintu, Denis, Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge, and Ahmed Ferej. “An Exploration of Strategies for Facilitating Graduates’ Transition to the World of Work: A Case of Technical, Vocational Education and Training Graduates in Uganda.” International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research 5, no. 1 (2019): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijvetr.20190501.11.

Kipngetich, Kogo Wilson, Moses Kapkiai, and Chumba Sammy. “Assessing the Extent of Application of Competency Based Education and Training Approach in Classroom Instruction in Technical and Vocational Education Training Institutions in Kenya.” Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, December 13, 2021, 52–64. https://doi.org/10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i1230383.

Liberati, Alessandro, Douglas G Altman, Jennifer Tetzlaff, Cynthia Mulrow, Peter C Gøtzsche, John P A Ioannidis, Mike Clarke, P J Devereaux, Jos Kleijnen, and David Moher. “The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Healthcare Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration.” BMJ 339 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2700.

Madu, Madu Chika, and James Edomwonyi Edokpolor. “Issues and Challenges Facing The Teaching and Learning of Tvet in The Covid-19 Pandemic Era.” Journal of Vocational Education Studies 4, no. 2 (December 25, 2021): 188–95. https://doi.org/10.12928/joves.v4i2.4921.

Mathur, Arushi, Maitreyi Sharan, Shilpi Chakraborty, and Sohini Mullick. “Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Examining Changing Conditions in India.” In ICSD 2021, 31. Basel Switzerland: MDPI, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2022015031.

Muhammad, Hassan N, Mursali Mohammed Jaji, and Bala Adamu Wakili. “Exploring Strategies for Integrating Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) into Almajiri Schooling System for Sustainable National Development in North Eastern Nigeria.” International Journal of Innovative Social & Science Education Research 7, no. 2 (2019): 96–105. www.seahipaj.org.

Munyaradzi, Muchineripi, Akwasi Arko-Achemfuor, and Kofi Quan-Baffour. “An Exploration of Comprehensive Student Support Systems in Technical Vocational Education and Training Colleges for Students with Disability.” Community College Journal of Research and Practice, July 21, 2021, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2021.1952914.

Njura, Hellen Joseph, Kaberia Isaac Kubai, Simon Thuranira Taaliu, and Kakai Shem Khakame. “The Relationship between Agricultural Teaching Approaches and Food Security in Kenya.” Edited by Christos Troussas. Education Research International 2020 (2020): 8847864. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8847864.

Okoye, Reko, and Maxwell Onyenwe Arimonu. “Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and a Way Forward .” Journal of Education and Practice 7, no. 3 (2016): 113–19. www.iiste.org.

Oladejo, Mutiat Titilope. “Challenges of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Nigerian History.” Makerere Journal of Higher Education 11, no. 1 (January 1, 1970): 67–81. https://doi.org/10.4314/majohe.v11i1.6.

Omang, Thomas Achoda, and Pius U. Angioha. “Assessing the Impact Covid-19 Pandemic on the Educational Development of Secondary School Students.” JINAV: Journal of Information and Visualization 2, no. 1 (January 16, 2021): 25–32. https://doi.org/10.35877/454RI.jinav261.

Omodan, Bunmi Isaiah, and Olugbenga A. Ige. “University Students’ Perceptions of Curriculum Content Delivery during COVID-19 New Normal in South Africa.” Qualitative Research in Education 10, no. 2 (June 2021): 204–27. https://doi.org/10.17583/qre.2021.7446.

Rudhumbu, Norman. “Implementation of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Curriculum in Colleges in Botswana: Challenges, Strategies and Opportunities.” International Journal of Training Research 20, no. 2 (May 4, 2022): 160–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/14480220.2021.1990106.

Singh, Vashnee, and Lester Brian Shawa. “Lecturers’ Experiences of Massification at a Technical and Vocational Education and Training College in South Africa and the Development Agenda: A Social Identity Theory | African Journal of Development Studies (Formerly AFFRIKA Journal of Politics, Economics and Society).” African Journal of Development Studies (Formerly AFFRIKA Journal of Politics, Economics and Society) 11, no. 3 (2021). https://journals.co.za/doi/abs/10.31920/2634-3649/2021/v11n3a6.

Yeap, Chye Fhern, Najibah Suhaimi, and M. Khalid M. Nasir. “Issues, Challenges, and Suggestions for Empowering Technical Vocational Education and Training Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Malaysia.” Creative Education 12, no. 08 (2021): 1818–39. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2021.128138.

Yunusa, Abdullahi Abubakar, Ismaila Temitayo Sanusi, Oluwaseun Alexander Dada, Solomon Sunday Oyelere, Friday Joseph Agbo, George Obaido, and Kehinde Aruleba. “The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Higher Education in Nigeria: University Lecturers’ Perspectives.” IjEDict – International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology 17, no. 4 (2021): 43–66. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88636.

Zinn, Bernd, Kevin Raisch, and Jennifer Reimann. “Analysing Training Needs of TVET Teachers in South Africa: An Empirical Study.” International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training 6, no. 2 (August 29, 2019): 174–97. https://doi.org/10.13152/IJRVET.6.2.4.

Zulu, Wiseman V., and Sybert Mutereko. “Exploring the Causes of Student Attrition in South African TVET Colleges: A Case of One KwaZulu-Natal Technical and Vocational Education and Training College.” Interchange 51, no. 4 (December 1, 2020): 385–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10780-019-09384-y.

Zwane, Mmatau, and Wendy N. Setlalentoa. “Investigating Factors Hindering the Implementation of E-Learning at Motheo Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) College: A Case Study of the National Vocational Certificate (NCV) Programme.” In Education and New Developments 2020, 363–65. inScience Press, 2020. https://doi.org/10.36315/2020end077.

Dr. Sulaimon Adewale is currently a Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. He holds a PhD in Educational Management. His research focuses on Educational Policy Studies, TVET and Gender Studies, Virtual teaching and learning and Educational Management.

Dr. Bunmi Isaiah Omodan is a Senior Lecturer, at Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. He holds a PhD in Education Management and Leadership. His research focuses on Africanised Pedagogy, Decoloniality and Conflict Management.

Dr. Omotayo Adewale Awodiji is currently a Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. He holds a PhD in Education Management. His research focuses on Professional Development, Teacher Education, Leading School For 4IR, Leadership, Educational Management, ICT in Education, and Research Methods.

Adewale,S., Omodan B.I. and Awodiji O.A.Post-COVID Teaching and Learning of Religious Education in the Context of School Violence in South Africa,” E-Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences 3, no.11 (2022):19-35.  https://doi.org/10.38159/ehass.2022sp3113

© 2022 The Author(s). Published and Maintained by Noyam Publishers. This is an open access article under the CCBY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).