Post-COVID-19 Teaching and Learning Strategies in South African Schools

Benjamin Damoah ORCID iD  & Bunmi Isaiah Omodan ORCID iD

Issue: Vol.3  No.11 October 2022 Post COVID-19 Special Issue  Article 7 pp.90-103
DOI: |   Published online 28th October 2022.
© 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CCBY license (


The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a total shutdown of global economies and education institutions to lessen the spread of the virus. Due to strict compliance with safety protocols, educational institutions were duty-bound to shift from traditional face-to-face to virtual classroom teaching and learning strategies. This new teaching approach was unanimously embraced and adopted by all institutions globally. The easing of COVID-19 restrictions has led to the re-opening of mainstream schools. As a result, the study focused on teaching strategies adopted by educators after the lockdown. This study employed an interpretive paradigm anchored on the opportunity to learn (OTL) theory. Teaching and learning strategy is one of the key variables grounded in the OTL. Critical issues emerged from this conceptual paper. Among these was the lack of uniform teaching and learning methods approved by the Department of Basic Education (DBE) in the post-COVID-19 era. The teaching approach adopted during the national shutdown mostly benefited learners from affluent homes, lack of digital learning and teaching support systems disadvantaged learners from poor communities. This study recommended, among others, the provision of adequate online teaching resources for implementing blended teaching and learning methods in South African schools.

Keywords: Blended teaching approach, COVID-19 pandemic, Strategy, teaching and learning, South Africa

2U Inc. “Teaching Methods,” 2018.

Adu, Kemi O., Kazeem Ajasa Badaru, Ntombozuko Duku, and Emmanuel O. Adu. “Innovation and Technology: A Panacea to Teaching and Learning Challenges during the Covid-19 Lockdown in South Africa.” Research in Social Sciences and Technology 7, no. 1 (April 19, 2022): 69–89.

Banicky, Lisa A. “Opportunity to Learn .” Education Policy Brief 7 (October 2000).

Chandra Sekhar Rao csrv, V, and yahoocoin Professor of English. “Blended Learning: A New Hybrid Teaching Methodology.” Online Submission 3, no. 13 (2019): 2456–8104.

Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison. Research Methods in Education. Eighth edition. | New York: Routledge, 2018.: Routledge, 2017.

Creswell, John W, and Cheryl N Poth. Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design. 4th ed. SAGE Publications, Inc, 2017.

Damoah, Benjamin. “Teachers’ Perception of the Integration of Environmental Education into Grade 12 Curriculum in East London Education District.” University of Fort Hare; Faculty OF Education, 2019.

Daniel, Sir John. “Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Prospects 49, no. 1–2 (October 20, 2020): 91–96.

Department of Basic Education. “National Department of Education Annual Report 2020/2021 Financial Year.” Pretoria, 2021.

Department of Health. “Update On Covid-19 (Wednesday 15 June 2022) – SA Corona Virus Online Portal.” COVID-19 Statistics in South Africa, 2022.

Doukakis, Spyridon, and Evita C. Alexopoulos. “Distance Learning for Secondary Education Students. The Role of Educational Neuroscience.” In The Role of Educational Neuroscience, 160–68. Springer Nature, 2020.

ELM Learning. “What Is Blended Learning? Examples & More | ELM Learning.” Instructional Design, August 27, 2022.

Gill, Eric. “What Is Your Teaching Style? 5 Effective Teaching Methods for Your Classroom,” September 1, 2020.

Gqokonqana, Onke, Odunayo Magret Olarewaju, and Melanie Bernice Cloete. “Blended Learning Challenges During COVID-19: A Case of Cost Accounting 2 Students at a Selected South African Higher Education Institution.” Research in Social Sciences and Technology 7, no. 2 (June 26, 2022): 87–107.

Hoadley, Ursula. “Schools in the Time of COVID-19: Impacts of the Pandemic on Curriculum.” Resep Non-Economic Working Paper, Stellenbosch University. Cape Town, 2020.

Kivunja, Charles, and Ahmed Bawa Kuyini. “Understanding and Applying Research Paradigms in Educational Contexts.” International Journal of Higher Education 6, no. 5 (2017): 26–41.

McDonnell, Lorraine M. “Opportunity to Learn as a Research Concept and a Policy Instrument.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 17, no. 3 (September 23, 1995): 305–22.

McMillan, James, and Sally Schumacher. Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry. 7th ed. Pearson, 2013.

Omodan, Bunmi Isaiah. “Virtual Management of Students’ Unrest During the COVID-19 New Normal: The Need for an Innovative Approach.” Journal of Culture and Values in Education 5, no. 1 (March 25, 2022): 1–12.

Parker, Rubeena, Katherine Morris, and Jane Hofmeyr. Education, Inequality and Innovation in the Time of COVID-19. Johannesburg: JET Education Services, 2020.

Plessis, Elize du. “Student Teachers’ Perceptions, Experiences, and Challenges Regarding Learner-Centred Teaching.” South African Journal of Education 40, no. 1 (February 29, 2020): 1–10.

Pokhrel, Sumitra, and Roshan Chhetri. “A Literature Review on Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Teaching and Learning.” Higher Education for the Future 8, no. 1 (January 19, 2021): 133–41.

SADTU. “The Challenge of Going Back to School-Survey 2.” Accessed October 26, 2022.

Scherff, Lisa, and Carolyn Piazza. “The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: A Survey of High School Students’ Writing Experiences.” Research in the Teaching of English 39, no. 3 (February 2005): 271–304.

Screencastify Squad. “Hybrid Teaching: Strategies and Tips for K-12 Education | Screencastify,” 2022.

Shepherd, Debra, and Nompumelelo Mohohlwane. The Impact of COVID-19 in Education-More than a Year of Disruption. Vol. 5. National Income Dynamics (NIDS)-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (CRAM) Wave, 2021.

Soudien, Crain, Vijay Reddy, and Jacqueline Harvey. “The Impact of COVID-19 on a Fragile Education System: The Case of South Africa.” In Primary and Secondary Education During Covid-19, edited by Fernando M. Reimers, 1st ed. NY, Manhattan: Springer, Charm, 2022.

South African Government. Disaster management Act: Directions: Full-time return of learners to schools and measures to address, prevent and combat the spread of Coronavirus COVID-19 in the Education Sector (2022).  [Press Released].

“South Africa Plans ‘Normal’ School Timetable for 2022 as It Eyes Rising Covid-19 Cases.” BusinessTech, December 1, 2021.

Spaull, Nic, and Servaas Van der Berg. “Counting the Cost: COVID-19 School Closures in South Africa and Its Impact on Children.” South African Journal of Childhood Education 10, no. 1 (December 7, 2020).

Statistics South Africa. “Work & Labour Force,” 2022.

Tadesse, Seble, and Worku Muluye. “The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Education System in Developing Countries: A Review.” Open Journal of Social Sciences 08, no. 10 (2020): 159–70.

UNESCO. “One Year into COVID-19 Education Disruption: Where Do We Stand? | UNESCO,” 2021.

Dr. Benjamin Damoah is currently a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Walter Sisulu University in South Africa. He holds a PhD in Education. His research focuses on, Environmental Education, Education for Sustainable Development, Climate Change, Teaching and Learning, Teacher Development, and Curriculum Studies.

Dr. Bunmi Isaiah Omodan is a Senior Lecturer, at Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. He holds a PhD in Education Management and Leadership. His research focuses on Africanised Pedagogy, Decoloniality and Conflict Management.

Damoah B. & Omodan B.I “Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era Teaching and Learning Strategies in South African Schools,” E-Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences 3, no.11 (2022):90-103.

© 2022 The Author(s). Published and Maintained by Noyam Publishers. This is an open access article under the CCBY license (