Evaluating the Practices of Inclusive Education in the Secondary Schools: A Social Realist Perspective

Inneth Baby Makofane ORCID iD, Khashane Stephen Malatji ORCID iD and Lydia Kgomotso Mphahlele ORCID iD

Issue: Vol.4  No.9  Article 9 pp.1126-1136
DOI: https://doi.org/10.38159/ehass.2023499 |   Published online 28th September, 2023
© 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CCBY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


The purpose of the study was to evaluate inclusive education practices at secondary schools in rural settings in the Lebopo Circuit of South Africa. The qualitative research approach was used to evaluate inclusive education practices using the social realist perspective. The study used the case study research design together with an interpretive paradigm to evaluate the daily practices of inclusive education. The study consists of a population of 10 teachers, 5 School-Based Support Team (SBST) members and 5 principals from the selected schools. The participants were selected following purposive sampling and some participants have experience in implementing inclusive education. Data was collected through individual semi-structured interviews, observation and document review. The data was analysed thematically. Archer’s social realist perspective and Bernstein’s pedagogic discourse were used as theoretical lenses to evaluate the practices of inclusive education in the circuit under study. The study results revealed that teachers misinterpret the policy of inclusive education because they view it as a policy supporting only learners with disabilities. The study further showed that the majority of schools do not have functional school-based support teams, and they are not aware of and do not perform their duties as expected. The study concluded that there is a knowledge gap in School-Based Support Teams in fulfilling their roles in inclusive education practices, no sufficient support from the parents and monitoring by the Department of Basic Education in the implementation of inclusive education practices. The study recommended that the School-Based Support Teams be provided with continuous sufficient training with the engagement of the district-based support teams and that a parent-teacher collaborative approach be used to accomplish positive outcomes.

Keywords: Inclusive education practices, School-Based Support Teams, Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support.

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Dr. Inneth Baby Makofane is an emerging researcher, with the following qualifications: BEDSPF Degree, BED Honours in Curriculum Studies, Master of Education in Curriculum Studies and Doctor of Education. She published an article and one accepted in the DHET-accredited journals. She attended several research conferences presenting her studies. Her research focus is on teaching and learning, inclusive education, curriculum development, assessment and teaching in higher education. She is a qualified teacher with twelve years of experience in the teaching fraternity, and currently serving as a Post-Doctoral Fellow at Tshwane University of Technology.

Prof. Khashane Stephen Malatji holds a PhD in Education: Curriculum and Instructional Studies from the University of Fort Hare. He also holds a Post Graduate Diploma in Higher Education for Academic Developers from Rhodes University. Prof. Malatji is currently an Associate Professor at the University of South Africa, in the College of Graduate Studies. He is the author of 75 articles in accredited journals. Prof Malatji has successfully supervised 26 Masters’(7 with cum laude) and 20 Doctoral students. In 2018, he was awarded Young Researcher of the Year by Tshwane University of Technology. In the 2020 academic year, he received an award as Emerging Researcher of the Year awarded by EASA. In 2021, he received an award as Senior Researcher of the Year by TUT. Prof. Malatji has delivered papers and chaired sessions at many national and international conferences. His research interest covers teaching and learning; evaluation of teaching, curriculum development; assessment; and teacher development in higher education.

Prof Mphahlele Lydia Kgomotso is a researcher, with the following qualifications: Secondary Teachers Diploma, Bachelor of Education (BA), Honours, Master, Doctoral, Degree in Education Management with HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences: Helsinki, in Finland, and then obtained a Master of Business Administration (MBA): degree program in Education Management in 2021. She taught at secondary schools for 23 years and acted as a HOD for commercial subjects for 3 years. She was appointed to a permanent position at Tshwane University of Technology in 2008. Promoted as a Senior lecturer in 2016. In 2019, she was promoted to Associate Professor and as an HOD for GET heading both Foundation Phase and Intermediate Phase. She published 22 articles in an accredited journal. She presented articles locally and internationally.

Makofane,Inneth B., Malatji, Khashane S. and Mphahlele, Lydia K.“Evaluating the Practices of Inclusive Education in the Secondary Schools: A Social Realist Perspective.E-Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences 4, no.9 (2023): 1126-1135.  https://doi.org/10.38159/ehass.2023499

© 2023 The Author(s). Published and Maintained by Noyam Journals. This is an open access article under the CCBY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).