A Reflection on Spiritual Development of Students as Part of Holistic Education in Ghana: A Christian’s Perspective

Godfred Adjei Nyarko

Issue: Vol.6  No.1 January 2020 Article 4 pp. 35-42
DOI :https://doi.org/10.32051/01202004
© 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CCBY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

41 Downloads

The development of students’ spirituality as part of their formation was found to be important by the early missionaries who started formal education in the country. This was because they had the belief that good education is one of the pivots necessary for the progress and development of any society and nation. Education encompasses all round development of a person which embodies both the physical and spiritual aspects of life. However, of late the continuous educational reforms which have been implemented in Ghana have neglected the spiritual development of students, relegating it to the background in terms of making it an integral part of the formal educational curriculum. Any education devoid of the right moral values is self-destructive and detrimental to development. The youth who form majority of the nation’s population are confronted with numerous challenges and the need for their spiritual development as part of holistic education is very critical. This has brought about the continuous debate as to whether spiritual development or spirituality should be integrated into Ghana’s educational system as part of students’ formation. The purpose of this paper is to find out the effect of spiritual development on students’ holistic education and how spirituality impact teaching and learning. It will also consider some Christian religious practices as part of spiritual development, and how these religious expressions influence students’ holistic formation.

Keywords: Spirituality, Development, Holistic Education

Alexandria: Association for supervision and Curriculum Development, 2000.


Biggs, J. Teaching for Quality Learning. Berkshire: SRHE and Open University Press, 2003.


Bigger, S. “Spirituality as a process within the school curriculum.” A Journal of New Thinking for Education vol. 9, no. 1, 2003, 1-2.


Claire, G. M. Spirituality Development as a Component of Holistic Development in Higher Education.2011, MA, Louisiana State University.


Eberhardt, D. and Dalton, J. C. “Fostering student spiritual development through selected student affairs practice”. In Speck, W. B. & Hopps S. L. (eds.), Searching for spirituality in higher education. New York: Lang. Publishing, Inc., 2007.


Finkelstein, L. The Jews: Their History, Culture and Religion, Volume II. Third Edition. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1960.


Glenn, M. “Good Teaching, Spirituality and the Challenge of Encountering Cultural Differences in Australia” in Abe Ata, ed. Catholics and Catholicism in Australia; challenges and achievements.


Horton, D. The Portable Seminar. Michigan: Bethany House Publishers, 2006.


Jack, P. “Spirituality, Curriculum and Education.” International Journal of Children’s Spirituality. Vol.2, 1997.


Kew East; David Lovell Publishing, 2012.


Kessler R., The soul of education; helping students find connection, compassion and character at School.


Kirk deVille, R. Spirituality and education: A conceptual analysis. University of Connecticut, 2000. PhD Thesis.


Laurie, S. S. Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education. New York: AMS Press, 1970.


Laura, J. “What Does Spirituality in Education Mean?” Journal of College and character, 2005.


Linman, J. Holy conversation: spirituality for worship. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2010.


Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 2002


Love, P. G. Spirituality and Student Development: Theoretical Connections. New Directions for Student Service, 2001.


Magness, L. You are the Temple of God: Spirituality and worship. Leaven, 2004.


Mayer, J. D. “Spiritual Intelligence or Spiritual Consciousness?” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. Special issue: The spiritual intelligence, 10 (1).


McDonald, J. Educational Development in a Nutshell. York: University Press, 2015.


Njoki, N. W., Manyimo E. L. and Ritskes, E. J. Spirituality, Education and Society: An Integrated Approach. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2011.www.sensepublishers.com


Omidvari, S. Spiritual health, its nature and the instruments used. Iran J Psycho Clinic. 2010.


Parker P. J. “Teaching with Heart and Soul; Reflections on Spirituality in Teacher Education.” Journal of Teacher Education, 2003.


Paloutzian, R. F., and Park, C. L. Handbook of psychology of religion and spirituality. 2nd ed. New York; Guilford Publications, 2005.


Pfeiffer, C. F. et. al. Wycliffe Bible Dictionary. Hendrickson, 1823-1825


Prate, T. D. and Merton, T. The Education of the Whole Person. Birmingham: Religious Education Press, 1990.


Rafii, G. “The role of prayer on physical health. Qom Univ.” Medical Science Journal, 2010.


Richardson, P. A. Spiritual Formation in Corporate Worship. Birmingham: Sanford University, 1999.


Sisk, D. “Spiritual intelligence: The tenth intelligence that integrates all other intelligences.” Gifted Educational International, 16 (3), 208-212.


Sisk, D. and Torrance, E. P. Spiritual intelligence: Developing higher consciousness. New York: Creative Education Press, 2001.


Wright, A. Spirituality and Education. New York: Rutledge, 2000.

GODFRED ADJEI NYARKO, MPhil, is a PhD Candidate in the Department of Religious Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology – Ghana. Email:canonnyarko@gmail.com

Nyarko, Godfred A. “A Reflection on Spiritual Development of Students as Part of Holistic Education in Ghana: A Christian’s Perspective.” E-Journal of Religious and Theological Studies 6, no. 1 (2020): 35-42. https://doi.org/10.32051/01202004

© 2020 The Author(s). Published and Maintained by Noyam Publishers. This is an open access article under the CCBY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).